- © 2014 E. Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Science Publishers
We report pyrrhotite, anhydrite and dolomite crystal rods in fluorapatite occurring in silicate-bearing carbonate rocks associated with UHP eclogites in the Tromsø Nappe of the Scandinavian Caledonides in Norway. The apatite-rich rock (up to 10 vol. %) is composed of Mg-rich calcite with dolomite exsolutions, almandine-grossular garnet, low-jadeite clinopyroxene, magnesiohornblende, phlogopite, and accessory minerals represented mainly by zircon, Fe-Ti oxides and allanite. Fluorapatite occurring as euhedral crystals in the carbonate matrix and as inclusions in garnet and clinopyroxene shows up to 45 mol. % of the hydroxylapatite component, traces of CO32−, probably CN− and small amounts of the britholite and ellestadite components. Pyrrhotite occurs as crystallographically oriented rods parallel to the c axis of the host hydroxyl-bearing fluorapatite either as a dense trellis or in the form of scarce inclusions. Precipitation of pyrrhotite in the fluorapatite was probably facilitated by a volatile sulphur phase (e.g., H2S), which was enclosed within the apatite nano-channels and interacted with Fe in apatite. Anhydrite and dolomite rods have also been identified in the apatite, pointing to the presence of HCO3− in the fluids. The anhydrite is also trapped by exsolved dolomite from calcite in the carbonate matrix. Crystallisation of anhydrite, and probably also the associated pyrrhotite, at about 550–650°C was deduced from calcite-dolomite thermometry. At these amphibolite-facies, post-UHP conditions rapid pyrrhotite precipitation in the host apatite is presumed. Relaxation of the fluorapatite structure in the a-axis direction during decompression facilitated the formation of the oriented inclusions in apatite.